CLAMP banner Rotating CLAMP plot

References and Selected CLAMP Publications



Axelrod, D.I. (1939) A Miocene flora from the western boarder of the Mohave Desert. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 516:1-129.

Axelrod, D.I. (1950) The Anaverde flora of  southern California, Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 590:119-158.

Axelrod, D.I. (1956) Mio-Pliocene floras from west-central Nevada. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 33:1-322.

Axelrod, D.I. (1964) The Miocene Trapper Creek flora of southern Idaho. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 51:1-161.

Axelrod, D.I. (1966) The Eocene Copper Basin flora of northeastern Nevada. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 59:1-125.

Axelrod, D.I. (1980) Contributions to the Neogene paleobotany of central California. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 121:1-212.

Axelrod, D.I. (1985) Miocene floras from the Middlegate basin, west-central Nevada. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 129:l-279.

Axelrod, D.I. (1991) The Early Miocene Buffalo Canyon Flora of Western Nevada. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 135:1-180.

Axelrod, D.I. (1992) The middle Miocene Pyramid flora of western Nevada. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 137:1-5.

Axelrod, D.I. (1944) The Sonoma flora. In: Chaney RW (ed) Pliocene floras of California and Oregon. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ  553:167-206.

Page Top

Bailey, I.W., & Sinnot, E.W. (1915) A botanical index of Cretaceous and Tertiary climates. Science, 41: 831-834.

Budantsev, L.Y. (1968) The late cretaceous flora of the Vilui depression. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 53: 3–16.

Burnham, R. J., Pitman, N. C. A.,  Johnson,  K. R., Wilf,  P., (2001) Habitat-related error in estimating temperatures from leaf margins in a humid tropical forest. American Journal of Botany 88: 1096-1102.

Page Top

Chaney, R.W. (1920) The flora of the Eagle Creek Formation. Walker Mus Univ Chicago Contr 2: 1-173.

Chaney, R.W. (1927) Geology and palaeontology of the Crooked River basin, with special reference to the Bridge Creek flora. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 346:45-138.

Chaney, R.W. (1944) The Troutdale flora In: Chaney RW (ed) Pliocene floras of California and Oregon. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 553: 323-351.

Chaney, R.W., Axelrod, D.I. (1959) Miocene floras of the Columbia Plateau. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 617:135-237.

Chaney, R.W., Sanborn, E.I. (1933) The Goshen flora of west-central Oregon. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 439:1-103.

Condit, C.B. (1938) The San Pablo flora of west-central California. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 476: 219-268..

Condit, C.B. (1944a) The Remington Hill flora. In: Chaney RW (ed) Pliocene floras of California and Oregon. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 553: 21–55.

Condit, C.B. (1944b) The Table Mountain flora. In: Chaney RW (ed) Pliocene floras of California and Oregon. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 553: 57–90.

Craggs, H.J. (2005) Late Cretaceous climate signal of the northern Pekulney Range Flora of northeastern Russia Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 217:25-46.

Page Top

Falconer, D.S. & Mackay, T.F.C. (1996) Introduction to quanti- tative genetics. Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow.

Forest, C.E., Wolfe, J.A., Molnar, P., Emmanuel, K.A. (1999) Palaeoaltimetry incorporating atmospheric physics and botanical estimates of palaeoclimate. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 111: 497-511

Fritts, H.J. (1961) An analysis of maximum summer temperatures inside and outside a forest. Ecology, 42: 436-440.

Page Top

Gregory-Wozicki, K.M. (2000) Relationships between leaf morphology and climate, Bolivia: implications for estimating palaeoclimate from fossil floras. Paleobiology, 26: 668-688.

Godefroit, P., Golvneva, L.B., Shchepetov, S., Garcia, G., Alekseev, P. (2009) The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia. Naturwissenschaften, doi:10.1007/s00114-008-0499-0.

Page Top

Herman, A.B., and Spicer, R.A. (1996) Palaeobotanical evidence for a warm Cretaceous Arctic Ocean. Nature, 380: 330-333.

Holdridge, L.R. (1947) Determination of world plant formations from simple climatic data. Science, 105, 367--368.

Page Top

Jacques, F.M.B, Su, T., Spicer, R.A., Xing, Y., Huang, Y., Wang, W,. Zhou, Z. (2011) Leaf Physiognomy and Climate: Are Monsoon Climates Different? Global and Planetary Change, 76: 56-62.

Juenger, T., Pérez-Pérez, J.M. & Micol, J.L. (2005) Quantitative trait loci mapping of floral and leaf morphology traits in Arabidopsis thaliana: evidence for modular genetic architecture. Evolution and Development, 7: 259–2

Page Top

Kennedy, E.M., Spicer, R.A., Rees, P. M, (2002) Quantitative paleoclimate estimates from Late Cretaceous and Paleocene leaf floras in the northwest of the South Island, New Zealand, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 184:321-345.

Kennedy, E.M., Arens, N.C., Reichgelt, T., Spicer, R.A., Spicer, T.E.V., Stranks, L., Yang, J. (2014) Deriving temperature estimates from Southern Hemisphere leaves. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 412, 80-90.

Khan, M.A., Spicer, R.A., Bera, S., Ghosh, R., Yang, J., Spicer, T.E.V., Guo, S.-X., Su, T., Jacques, F.M.B., Grote, P.J. (2014) Miocene to Pleistocene floras and climate of the Eastern Himalayan Siwaliks, and new palaeoelevation estimates for the Namling–Oiyug Basin, Tibet. Global and Planetary Change, 113: 1-10.

Kovach, W.L., Spicer, R.A., (1995) Canonical Correspondence Analysis of Leaf Physiognomy: a Contribution to the Development of a New palaeoclimatological Tool. Palaeoclimates, 1: 125-138.

Kowalski, E. A., Dilcher, D. L., (2003) Warmer paleotemperatures for terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100 : 167-170.

Page Top

LaMotte, R.S. (1936) The Upper Cedarville flora of northwestern Nevada and adjacent California. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 455:57-142.

Lakhanpal, R.N. (1958) The Rujada flora of west central Oregon. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 35:1-65.

Page Top

MacGinitie, H.D. (1933) The Trout Creek flora of southeastern Oregon. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 416:21- 68.

MacGinitie, H.D. (1937) The flora of the Weaverville beds of Trinity County, California. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 455:83-151.

MacGinitie, H.D. (1941a) A middle Eocene flora from the central Sierra Nevada. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ  534:1-178.

MacGinitie, H.D. (1941b) Flora of Weaverville beds of Trinity County, California. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 465:83-151.

MacGinitie, H.D. (1953) Fossil plants from the Florissant beds, Colorado. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 599:1-198.

MacGinitie, H.D. (1969) The Eocene Green River flora of northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 83:1-140.

MacGinitie, H.D. (1974) An early middle Eocene flora from the Yellowstone-Absaroka volcanic province, northwestern Wind River Basin, Wyoming. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci 108:1-103.

Page Top

New, M., Hulme, M. and Jones, P., (1999) Representing Twentieth-Century Space–Time Climate Variability. Part I: Development of a 1961–90 Mean Monthly Terrestrial Climatology. Journal of Climate, 12: 829-856.

New, M., Lister, D., Hulme, M., Makin, I. (2002) A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas. Climate Research, 21: 1-15.

Page Top

Peppe, D.J., Royer, D.L., Wilf, P., Kowalski, E.A. (2010) Quantification of large uncertainties in fossil leaf paleoaltimetry. Tectonics, 29: TC3015.

Pigliucci, M. (2003) Phenotypic integration: studying the ecology and evolution of complex phenotypes. Ecology Letters, 6: 265–272.

Povey, D. A. R., R. A. Spicer, et al. (1994) Palaeobotanical investigation of early Tertiary palaeoelevations in northeastern Nevada: initial results. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 81: 1-10.

Potbury, S.S. (1935) The La Porte flora of Plumas County, California.  Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 465:29-  81.

Page Top

R Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Raunkiaer, C., (1934) The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 632 pp.

Renney, K.M. (1972) The Miocene Temblor flora of west central California. Dissertation, University of California 106 pp.

Rodriguez, R.E., Debernardi, J.M. & Palatnik, J.F. (2014) Morphogenesis of simple leaves: regulation of leaf size and shape. WIREs Developmental Biology, 3: 41–57.

Page Top

Sanborn, E.I. (1935) The Comstock flora of west central Oregon. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 465:1-28.

Shukla, A., Mehrotra, R.C., Spicer, R.A., Spicer, T.E.V. & Kumar, M. (2014) Cool equatorial terrestrial temperatures and the South Asian monsoon in the Early Eocene: Evidence from the Gurha Mine, Rajasthan, India. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 412: 187-198.

Smiley, C.J. (1963) The Ellensburg Flora of Washington. Univ Calif  Publ Geol Sci 35:159-267.

Spicer, R.A. ( 2000) Leaf Physiognomy and Climate Change. In: S.J. Culver and P. Rawson (Editors), Biotic Response to Global change: the Last 145 Million Years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 244-264.

Spicer, R.A. (2007) Recent and Future Developments of CLAMP: Building on the Lagacy of Jack A. Wolfe. Cour. Forsch. -Inst. Senckenberg, 258: 109-118.

Spicer, R.A. (2008) CLAMP. In: V. Gornitz (Editor), Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 156-158.

Spicer, R.A., Ahlberg, A., Herman, A.B., Kelley, S.P., Raikevitch, M.I., Rees, P.M. (2002) Palaeoenvironment and ecology of the middle Cretaceous Grebenka Flora of northeastern Russia. Palaeogepgraphy, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 184:65-105.

Spicer, R.A., Ahlberg, A., Herman, A.B.,Hofmann, C-C., Raikevitch, M., Valdes, P.J., Markwick, P.J. (2008) The late Cretaceous continental interior of Siberia: A challenge for climate models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267: 228-235.

Spicer, R.A., Bera, S., De Bera, S., Spicer, T.E.V., Srivastava, G., Mehrotra, R., Mehrotra, N., Yang, J., (2011) Why do foliar physiognomic climate estimates sometimes differ from those observed? Insights from taphonomic information loss and a CLAMP case study from the Ganges Delta. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 302: 381-395.

Spicer, R.A., Herman, A.B., Kennedy, E.M. (2004) The Foliar Physiognomic Record of Climatic Conditions During Dormancy: CLAMP and the Cold Month Mean Temperature. Journal of Geology, 112: 685-702.

Spicer, R.A., Herman, A.B., Liao, W., Spicer, T.E.V., Kodrul, T.M., Yang, J., Jin, J., (2014) Cool tropics in the Eocene: Evidence from the Changchang Flora, Hainan Island, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 412: 1-16.

Spicer, R.A., Valdes, P.J., Spicer, T.E.V., Craggs, H.J., Srivastava, G., Mehrotra, R.C., Yang, J. (2009) New Developments in CLAMP: Calibration using global gridded meteorological data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 283:91-98.

Spicer, R.A., Yang, J., (2010) Quantification of uncertainties in fossil leaf paleoaltimetry: Does leaf size matter? Tectonics, 29: TC6001, doi:10 1029/2010TC002741

Srivastava, G., Spicer, R.A., Spicer, T.E.V., Yang, J., Kumar, M., Mehrotra, R.C. & Mehrotra, N.C. (2012) Megaflora and palaeoclimate of a Late Oligocene tropical delta, Makum Coalfield, Assam: Evidence for the early development of the South Asia Monsoon. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 342-343: 130-142.

Steart, D.C., Spicer, R.A., Bamford, M.K. (2010) Is southern Africa different? An investigation of the relationship between leaf physiognomy and climate in southern African mesic vegetation. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 162: 607-620.

Stranks, L. (1996) Physiognomic and taphonomic studies in New Zealand and Australia: implications for the use of palaeobotany as a tool for palaeoclimate estimation. DPhil Thesis. Oxford University, Oxford.

Stranks, L., England, P. (1997) The use of resembalnce function in the measurement of climatic parameters from the physiognomy of woody dicotyledons. Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 131: 15-28.

Page Top

Teodorides, V., Mazouch, P., Spicer, R.A., Uhl, D. (2011) Refining CLAMP - Investigations towards improving the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 299: 39-48.

Ter Braak, C.J.F. (1986) Canonical correspondence Analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology, 67: 1167-1179.

Tomsich, C.S., McCarthy, P.J., Fowell, S.J., Sunderlin, D. (2010) Paleofloristic and paleoenvironmental information from a Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) flora of the lower Cantwell Formation near Sable Mountain, Denali National Park, Alaska. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295: 389-408.

Page Top

Uhl, D., Traiser, C., Griesser, U., Denk, T. (2007) Fossil leaves as palaeoclimate proxies in the Palaeogene of Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Acta Palaeobotanica, 47: 89-107.

Page Top

Wahrhaftig, C., Wolfe, J.A.., Leopold, E..B, Lanphere M.A, (1969) The coal-bearing group in the Nenana coal field, Alaska. US Geol Surv Bull 1274-D:1-30

Webb, L. J. (1959) Physiognomic classification of Australian rain forests. Journal of Ecology, 47: 551-570

Wolfe, J.A. (1964) Miocene floras from Fingerrock Wash, southwestern Nevada. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 454-N:1-36

Wolfe, J.A. (1994a) Tertiary climatic changes at middle latitudes of western North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 108:195-205

Wolfe, J.A. (1994b) An analysis of Neogene climates in Beringia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 108:207-216

Wolfe, J.A. (1993) A Method of Obtaining Climatic Parameters from Leaf Assemblages. US Geol Surv Bull 2040:1-73

Wolfe, J.A., Schorn, H. (1990) Taxonomic revision of the Spermatopsida of the Oligocene Creede flora, Colorado. US Geol Surv Bull 1923:1-40

Wolfe, J.A., Tanai, T. (1980) The Miocene Seldovia Point flora from the Kenai Group, Alaska. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1105:1-52

Wolfe, J.A., (1990) Palaeobotanical evidence for a marked temperature increase following the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Nature, 343: 153-156

Wolfe, J.A., (1993) A method of obtaining climatic parameters from leaf assemblages. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull., 2040, 73 pp. Download pdf (18.9 Mb)

Wolfe, J.A., (1995) Paleoclimatic estimates from Tertiary leaf assemblages. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 23:119-142.

Wolfe, J.A., Forest, C.E., Molnar, P., (1998) Paleobotanical evidence of Eocene and Oligocene paleoaltitudes in midlatitude western North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110: 664-678.

Wolfe, J.A., Spicer, R.A., (1999) Fossil Leaf Character States: Multivariate Analysis. In Jones, T.P., and Rowe, N.P. (eds.) Fossil Plants and Spores: Modern Techniques. Geological Society, London, 233-239.

Wolfe, J.A., Uemura, K., (1999) Using fossil leaves as palaeoprecipitation indicators: an Eocene example - Comment. Geology, 27: 91-92.

Page Top

Yang, J., Spicer, R.A., Spicer, T.E.V., Li, C-S., (2011) 'CLAMP' Online: a new web-based palaeoclimate tool and its application to the terrestrial Paleogene and Neogene of North America. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 91: 163-183. DOI 10.1007/s12549-011-0056-2.

Yang, J., Spicer, R.A., Spicer, T.E.V., Arens, N.C., Jacques, F.M.B., Su, T., Kennedy, E.M., Herman, A.B., Steart, D.C., Srivatsva, G., Mehrotra, R.C., Valdes, P.J., Mehrotra, N.C., Zhou, Z.-K.,m Lai, J.-S., (2015) Leaf form-climate relationships on the global stage: an ensemble of characters. Global Ecology and Biogeography. DOI:10.1111/geb.12334.

Page Top

hotspot linking to the Institute of Botany., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Hotspot linking to the Open University