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Images - Arranged by Taxonomic Groups

Angiosperms Bryophytes Caytoniales Conifers Cycadophytes Ferns Ginkgophytes Leptostrobaleans
Lycophytes Sphenophytes                




Arctic Fossil Conifer Images


Auraucaria   Living Metasequoia foliage


During the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene conifers were the dominant component of mature forests across the Arctic. Many were deciduous (e.g. Cephalotaxopsis sp. and Parataxodium) but a few, with small or specialised leaves, (e.g. Araucarites sp. and Mesocyparis sp. appear to have been evergreen.

Modern conifers display a range of different growth forms from trees tens of meters high through to small bushes and all have pycnoxylic wood lacking vessels. None are herbaceous.

Seeds are usually dispersed from cones. Cones may be shed intact or as individual cones scales. In some instances the cone scales can be highly modified and fleshy and unlikely to be fossilized.

Araucaria with cones, Chile/Argentina Boarder   Foliage of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C. Cheng.